Trial of Galileo Galilei - 1633
by Douglas Linder(c) 2002
Douglas O. Linder
Elmer Powell Peer Professor of Law
University of Missouri- K. C. School of Law
In the 1633 trial of Galileo Galilei, two worlds come into cosmic conflict. Galileo's world of science and humanism collides with the world of Scholasticism and absolutism that held power in the Catholic Church. The result is a tragedy that marks both the end of Galileo's liberty and the end of the Italian Renaissance.
Galileo Galilei was born in 1564--the same year that Shakespeare was born and Michelangelo died. From an early age, Galileo showed his scientific skills... Eventually, he would be recognized as the father of experimental physics. Galileo's motto might have been "follow knowledge wherever it leads us."
At the University of Padua, where Galileo accepted a position after three years in Pisa, he began to develop a strong interest in Copernican theory...his revolutionary idea that the Sun was at the center of the universe and that the Earth--rotating on an axis--orbited around the sun once a year… Skeptics countered with the "common sense" notion that the earth they stood on appeared not to move at all--much less at the speed required to fully rotate every twenty-four hours while spinning around the sun. … Read more:
… Galileo, a good Catholic, offered "infinite thanks to God for being so kind as to make me alone the first observer of marvels kept hidden in obscurity for all previous centuries." Galileo began talking about his observations at dinner parties and in public debates in Florence, where he has taken up a new post…
… It became clear that the Copernican theory had its enemies.
Soon, however, Galileo--flamboyant by nature--decided that Copernicus was worth a fight. He decided to address his arguments to the enlightened public at large, rather than the hidebound academics…
… Galileo responded to criticism of his Copernican views in a December 1613 Letter to Castelli. In his letter, Galileo argued that the Scripture--although truth itself--must be understood sometimes in a figurative sense. A reference, for example, to "the hand of God" is not meant to be interpreted as referring to a five-fingered appendage, but rather to His presence in human lives. Given that the Bible should not be interpreted literally in every case, Galileo contended, it is senseless to see it as supporting one view of the physical universe over another. "Who," Galileo asked, "would dare assert that we know all there is to be known?"
Galileo hoped that his Letter to Castelli might foster a reconciliation of faith and science, but it only served to increase the heat. His enemies accused him of attacking Scripture and meddling in theological affairs. One among them, Father Lorini, raised the stakes for the battle when, on February 7, 1615, he sent to the Roman Inquisition a modified copy of Galileo's Letter to Castelli…
…In fact, Lorini's letter appears more charitable than he in fact was. He would stop at almost nothing to destroy the "Galileists," as is shown from his alteration--in certain key places--of the text of Galileo's Letter to Castelli. For example, where Galileo had written: "There are in Scripture words which, taken in the strict literal meaning, look as if they differed from the truth," Lorini substituted: "which are false in their literal meaning." However unscrupulous his methods, Lorini's denunciation succeeded in setting the machinery of the Catholic Church in motion.
Lorini had allies, such as Father Tommaso Caccini. Caccini traveled to Rome to appear before the Holy Office and expose, as he saw it, "the errors of Galileo." Called for examination on March 20, Caccini said that Florence was full of "Galileists" publicly declaring God to be an accident and doubting miracles. Caccini placed full blame for the sorry state of affairs on Galileo. Asked the basis for his report, Caccini credited Lorini and a Father Ximenes. Overall, the condemnation was hardly convincing. Giorgio de Santillana, author of The Crime of Galileo, wrote of Caccini's testimony: "The whole deposition is such an interminable mass of twists and innuendoes and double talk that a summary does no justice to it."…Read more:
…With "nineteen centuries of organized thought piling up to smother him," Galileo pleaded--in a powerful summary of thoughts on Scriptural interpretation and the evidence concerning the nature of the universe--his case in his Letter to the Grand Duchess. He asked that his idea not be condemned "without understanding it, without hearing it, without even having seen it." Galileo's eloquent Letter was forwarded to Rome where, in the words of one historian, "it sank out of sight as softly as a penny in a snowbank."
When depositions in the Galileo matter concluded, the Commissary-General forwarded two propositions of Galileo to eleven theologians (called "Qualifiers") for their evaluation: (1) The Sun is the center of the world and immovable of local motion, and (2) The Earth is not the center of the world, nor immovable, but moves according to the whole of itself, also with a diurnal motion. Four days later, on February 23, 1616, the Qualifiers unanimously declared both propositions to be "foolish and absurd" and "formally heretical." Less than two weeks later, Pope Paul V--described by the Florentine ambassador as "so averse to anything intellectual that everyone has to play dense and ignorant to gain his favor"--endorsed the theologian's conclusions… Read more:
The Trial of 1633
Galileo's admonition stopped the Copernican movement dead in its tracks. For Galileo, his admonition marked the beginning of a period of silence…and adjusted to a world which elevated mindless conformism over scientific understanding. Read complete paper:
by Douglas O. Linder (2010)
UNIVERSITY OF MISSOURI-KANSAS CITY (UMKC) SCHOOL OF LAW
The Happy Lawyer:
by Nancy Levit & Doug Linder
Publications of Douglas O. Linder
Vatican Science Panel Told By Pope: Galileo Was Right
November 1, 1992 – The New York Times
- Pope John Paul II -
"The 'Galileo case' teaches us that different branches of knowledge call for different methods, each of which brings out various aspects of reality"
Galileo Condemned As A Heretic - Misinterpretations Of The Bible
Homosexuality? Natural Law? Benedict XVI? Kids Are Being Hurt!!!
Reconciling Old Lovers:
John Paul on Science and Faith
By Michael Sherwin, O.P.
Galileo protest halts pope's [Benedict XVI] visit
January 15, 2008 - Cable News Network (CNN)
The case against Vatican power
September 8, 2010
The Vatican thirst for power divides Christianity and damages Catholicism
By Fr. Hans Kung – October 27, 2009 – The Guardian
“…Benedict XVI’s battle against science, Islam and cultural pluralism, threatens to turn the European clock back to a pre-Enlightenment era…”
by Hatim Salih – April 8, 2007 –
The Washington Post
[Unsubstantiated] --- RELIGIOUS BELIEFS that gay and lesbian relationships are SINFUL or INFERIOR to heterosexual relationships HARM gays and lesbians.
Judge Vaughn Walker Ruling
California Prop 8. August 4, 2010
Roman Catholic - hierarchy child sexual abuse “cover-ups” ordered by Benedict XVI to avoid public outrage & criminal charges -
falsely accused gay priests - WATERGATE?
The Lifetime Harm
They Caused Children and Continue to Cause by Their
Unsubstantiated Antigay Teachings
By Fr. Marty Kurylowicz
Gay marriage -> Restoring "Hope of Love" To Children In Early Childhood -> Marriage Equality – March 23, 2010 – Fr. Marty Kurylowicz
Gay Marriage - “SEPARATION BETWEEN CHURCH AND STATE”
Does Not Give Churches Or Benedict XVI
The Freedom To Abuse Children or Adults.
July 2010 - By Fr. Marty Kurylowicz
SEXUAL CONVERSION THERAPIES
Jack Drescher, M.D.
Belief In A Just World - Separation of Church and State -
Wrongly Condemning Homosexuals
Auschwitz - Christmas 2008
A flashback far more severe than
in Brokeback Mountain
Hate Crime Bill vs Attacks But No Facts -> Fear And Ignorance Of
The Blind Leading The Blind
October 27, 2009 – Fr. Marty Kurylowicz
BRAZIL – Cardinals’ HARMFUL HYSTERICAL DECEIT
Report: Bishop says kids ‘spontaneously’ gay – AP
By Bradley Brooks – May 5, 2010 – msnbc.com
Vatican’s Unsubstantiated Antigay Propaganda – Why???
MEXICO - “Decaf versus deCath?” September 8, 2010
Bush's Top Republican administration after 8 years left massive destruction, loss of human life in his wake
- Ken Mehlman, President Bush's campaign manager announces he is gay on the 5-year anniversary of Hurricane Katrina 2005.
by – Fr. Marty Kurylowicz – August 27, 2010
Galileo facing the Roman Inquisition,
painting by Cristiano Banti
Ecclesiastes 1:5 (New International Version)
5 The sun rises and the sun sets, and hurries back to where it rises.
Ecclesiastes 1:5 (New American Standard Bible)
5 Also, the sun rises and the sun sets; And hastening to its place it rises there again.
1 Chronicles 16:30 (New International Version)
30 Tremble before him, all the earth! The world is firmly established; it cannot be moved.
1 Chronicles 16:30 (New American Standard Bible)
30 Tremble before Him, all the earth; Indeed, the world is firmly established, it will not be moved.
Psalm 93:1 (New International Version)
1 The LORD reigns, he is robed in majesty; the LORD is robed in majesty and is armed with strength. The world is firmly established; it cannot be moved.
Psalm 93:1 (New American Standard Bible)
1 The LORD reigns, He is clothed with majesty; The LORD has clothed and girded Himself with strength; Indeed, the world is firmly established, it will not be moved.
Psalm 96:10 (New International Version)
10 Say among the nations, "The LORD reigns." The world is firmly established, it cannot be moved; he will judge the peoples with equity.
Psalm 96:10 (New American Standard Bible)
10 Say among the nations, "The LORD reigns; Indeed, the world is firmly established, it will not be moved; He will judge the peoples with equity."
Psalm 104:5 (New International Version)
5 He set the earth on its foundations; it can never be moved.
Psalm 104:5 (New American Standard Bible)
5 He established the earth upon its foundations, So that it will not totter forever and ever.
No - USA CIVIL LAWS - To Protect CHILDREN From Harmful Influence of -
Vatican's UNSUBSTANTIATED Antigay Teachings - Galileo
Fr. Marty Kurylowicz – August 8, 2009
It has been said that it is a slow process (10 to 20 years) from the time of what is researched on major universities regarding human sexuality to reach the general public. This is quite regrettable, especially when it concerns the safety and well being of children. But now in 2009 people are beginning to realize the kind of harm that is caused quite implicitly to children by influencing children to accept uninformed social and or religious norms that go contrary who they are as individuals, their sexual orientation and gender identity.
When I came out in March 1997 because of the harm caused to children who are exposed to the such negative influences as the Vatican’s unsubstantiated antigay teachings, and grow up LGBT, 6 months later, on September 10, 1997, the United States Catholic Conference Bishops came out with their revised document on homosexuality “Always Out Children.” In this document, the United States Catholic Conference Bishops besides making some other changes acknowledged the fact to change one’s sexual orientation might not be possible. This was a significant change in the Vatican's teachings on homosexuality.
When asked by a news reporter, at the time, whether the Bishops made these changes because, Fr. Martin S. Kurylowicz, came out about the harm to cause to children, they responded that “Oh no” these changes had been in the works for some time. For over 100 years there had been no change in the teachings of homosexuality by the Vatican. The truth before God would more likely be that yes, indeed it was changed after I came out and not by the bishops but by lawyers to avoid being held libel for the harm caused by the Vatican's unsubstantiated antigay teachings to millions of children.
Cardinal Ratzinger had been silencing and removing priests, sisters and religious since 1987, who were bringing the truth about homosexuality out into the open in the Roman Catholic Church. Father Robert Nugent, SDS, and Sister Jeannine Gramick, SSND are the cofounders of New Ways Ministry. They were silenced by Cardinal Ratzinger (now Benedict XVI) 7 months after I came out in March 1997 after attending their Fourth National New Ways Ministry Symposium held in Pittsburgh, PA. The two were slienced for their writings on homosexuality. Their work with LGBT people is described the New Ways Ministry website
that “…Like its name and its co-founders, the vision and philosophy of this group was solidly Catholic…Their work as "bridge-builders" found them reaching out, in one direction, to gay and lesbian people, and, in the other direction, to people working within the Church and Church structures . .. Primarily educational in mission, New Ways Ministry quickly established itself in the U.S. Catholic community as a national resource center and clearinghouse for information and materials on the topic of homosexuality as it impacts religious issues…
In 1997, our twentieth anniversary year was a banner year for the ministry. In March, we sponsored the Fourth National Symposium, entitled "The Church Teaching/Teaching the Church: A National Dialogue on Lesbian/Gay Issues and Catholicism." Over 650 Catholic leaders and pastoral ministers gathered in Pittsburgh for a weekend-long in-depth and extensive discussion of topics ranging from same-sex marriage, family relationships, civil rights, homophobia, heterosexism, pastoral care, and lesbian nuns. At that meeting, Bishop Gumbleton made another historic statement: he called on all gay and lesbian Church workers--"including priests and bishops
"--to come out of the closet and acknowledge their sexual orientation. Little by little, awareness of gay and lesbian Church personnel is becoming a reality in Catholicism. Read more
Cardinal Ratzinger (now Benedict XVI) from the Offices of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith issued the
May 31, 1999 Concerning
Sister Jeannine Gramick, SSND, and Father Robert Nugent, SDS, have been engaged in pastoral activities directed toward homosexual persons for more than twenty years. In 1977, they founded the organisation New Ways Ministry within territory of the Archdiocese of Washington in order to promote "justice and reconciliation between lesbian and gay Catholics and the wider Catholic community". They are the authors of the book Building Bridges: Gay and Lesbian Reality and the Catholic Church (Mystic: Twenty-Third Publications, 1992) and editors of the volume Voices of Hope: A Collection of Positive Catholic Writings on Gay and Lesbian Issues (New York: Center for Homophobia Education, 1995).
From the beginning, in presenting the Church's teaching on homosexuality, Father Nugent and Sister Gramick have continually called central elements of that teaching into question. For this reason, in 1984, James Cardinal Hickey, the Archbishop of Washington, following the failure of a number of attempts at clarification, informed them that they could no longer undertake their activities in that Archdiocese. At the same time, the Congregation for Institutes of Consecrated Life and for Societies of Apostolic Life ordered them to separate themselves totally and completely from New Ways Ministry, adding that they were not to exercise any apostolate without faithfully presenting the Church's teaching regarding the intrinsic evil of homosexual acts. Despite this action by the Holy See, Father Nugent and Sister Gramick continued their involvement in activities organised by New Ways Ministry, though removing themselves from leadership positions. They also continued to maintain and promote ambiguous positions on homosexuality and explicitly criticised documents of the Church's Magisterium on this issue. Because of their statements and activities, the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith and the Congregation for Institutes of Consecrated Life and for Societies of Apostolic Life received numerous complaints and urgent requests for clarification from Bishops and others in the United States of America. It was clear that the activities of Sister Gramick and Father Nugent were causing difficulties in not a few Dioceses and that they were continuing to present the teaching of the Church as one possible option among others and as open to fundamental change.
In 1988, the Holy See established a Commission under the Presidency of Adam Cardinal Maida to study and evaluate their public statements and activities and to determine whether these were faithful to Catholic teaching on homosexuality.
After the publication of Building Bridges, the investigation of the Commission focused primarily on this book, which summarized their activities and thinking. In 1994, the Commission issued its findings, which were communicated to the two authors. When their responses to these findings were received, the Commission formulated its final Recommendations and forwarded them to the Congregation for Institutes of Consecrated Life and for Societies of Apostolic Life. While not overlooking the presence of some positive aspects in the apostolate of Father Nugent and Sister Gramick, the Commission found serious deficiencies in their writings and pastoral activities, which were incompatible with the fullness of Christian morality. The Commission, therefore, recommended disciplinary measures, including the publication of some form of Notification, in order to counteract and repair the harmful confusion caused by the errors and ambiguities in their publications and activities.
As the problems presented by the two authors were primarily of a doctrinal nature, in 1995, the Congregation for Institutes of Consecrated Life and for Societies of Apostolic Life transferred the entire case to the competence of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith. At this point, with the hope that Father Nugent and Sister Gramick would be willing to express their assent to Catholic teaching on homosexuality and to correct the errors in their writings, the Congregation undertook another attempt at resolution by inviting them to respond unequivocally to certain questions regarding their position on the morality of homosexual acts and on the homosexual inclination.
Their responses, dated February 22, 1996, were not sufficiently clear to dispel the serious ambiguities of their position. In these, Sister Gramick and Father Nugent demonstrated a clear conceptual understanding of the Church's teaching on homosexuality, but refrained from professing any adherence to that teaching. Furthermore, the publication, in 1995, of their book Voices of Hope: A Collection of Positive Catholic Writings on Gay and Lesbian Issues had made it clear that there was no change in their opposition to fundamental elements of the Church's teaching.
Given the fact that certain of the statements of Father Nugent and Sister Gramick were clearly incompatible with the teaching of the Church and that the wide dissemination of these errors through their publications and pastoral activities was becoming an increasing source of concern for Bishops in the United States of America, the Congregation decided that the case should be resolved according to the procedure outlined in its Regulations for Doctrinal Examination (chapter 4).
In the Ordinary Session of October 8, 1997, the Cardinals and Bishops who make up the Congregation judged that the statements of Father Nugent and Sister Gramick, which had been identified through the above-mentioned procedure of the Regulations for Doctrinal Examination, were in fact erroneous and dangerous.
After the Holy Father had approved the formal contestatio of the authors, the above-mentioned erroneous statements were presented to them through their respective Superiors General. Each was asked to respond to the contestatio personally and independently from the other, to allow them the greatest freedom in expressing their individual positions.
In February 1998, the two Superiors General forwarded the responses to the Congregation. In the Ordinary Sessions of May 6 and May 20, 1998, the Members of the Congregation carefully evaluated the responses, after having received the opinions of members of the Episcopate of the United States and of experts in the field of moral theology.
The Members of the Congregation were unanimous in their decision that the responses of the two, while containing certain positive elements, were unacceptable. In each case, Father Nugent and Sister Gramick had sought to justify the publication of their books and neither had expressed personal adherence to the Church's teaching on homosexuality in sufficiently unequivocal terms. Thus, it was decided that they should be asked to formulate a public declaration, which would be submitted to the judgement of the Congregation. In this declaration they were asked to express their interior assent to the teaching of the Catholic Church on homosexuality and to acknowledge that the two above-mentioned books contained errors.
The two declarations which arrived in August 1998 were examined by the Congregation in the Ordinary Session of October 21, 1998. Once again, they were not sufficient to resolve the problems associated with their writings and pastoral activities. Sister Gramick, while expressing her love for the Church, simply refused to express any assent whatsoever to the teaching of the Church on homosexuality. Father Nugent was more responsive, but not unequivocal in his statement of interior assent to the teaching of the Church. It was decided by the Members of the Congregation, therefore, that Father Nugent should be given yet another opportunity to express unequivocal assent. For this reason, the Congregation formulated a declaration of assent and, with its letter of December 15, 1998, forwarded it to Father Nugent, through his Superior General, for his acceptance.
His response, dated January 25, 1999, showed that this attempt had not met with success. Father Nugent would not sign the declaration he had received and responded by formulating an alternative text which modified the Congregation's declaration on certain important points. In particular, he would not state that homosexual acts are intrinsically disordered and he added a section which calls into question the definitive and unchangeable nature of Catholic doctrine in this area.
Given the failure of the repeated attempts of the Church's legitimate authorities to resolve the problems presented by the writings and pastoral activities of the two authors, the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith is obliged to declare for the good of the Catholic faithful that the positions advanced by Sister Jeannine Gramick and Father Robert Nugent regarding the intrinsic evil of homosexual acts and the objective disorder of the homosexual inclination are doctrinally unacceptable because they do not faithfully convey the clear and constant teaching of the Catholic Church in this area. Father Nugent and Sister Gramick have often stated that they seek, in keeping with the Church's teaching, to treat homosexual persons "with respect, compassion and sensitivity". However, the promotion of errors and ambiguities is not consistent with a Christian attitude of true respect and compassion: persons who are struggling with homosexuality no less than any others have the right to receive the authentic teaching of the Church from those who minister to them.
The ambiguities and errors of the approach of Father Nugent and Sister Gramick have caused confusion among the Catholic people and have harmed the community of the Church. For these reasons, Sister Jeannine Gramick, SSND, and Father Robert Nugent, SDS, are permanently prohibited from any pastoral work involving homosexual persons and are ineligible, for an undetermined period, for any office in their respective religious institutes.
The Sovereign Pontiff John Paul II, at the Audience of May 14, 1999, granted to the undersigned Secretary, approved the present Notification, adopted in the Ordinary Session of this Congregation, and ordered its publication.
Rome, from the Offices of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, May 31, 1999.
+ Cardinal Joseph Ratzinger, Prefect + Tarcisio Bertone, S.D.B., Archbishop emeritus of Vercelli, Secretary Voices of Hope: A Collection of Positive Catholic Writings on Gay and Lesbian Issues (New York: Center for Homophobia Education, 1995) ix. Cf. Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, Agendi ratio in Doctrinarum examine, art. 23-27: AAS 89 (1997), 834
Cf. Gn 19 1-11; Lv 18:22; 20:13; 1 Cor 6:9; Rom 1:18-32; 1 Tim 1:10; Catechism of the Catholic Church 2357-2359, 2396; Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, Declaration Persona humana 8: AAS 68 (1976), 84-85; Letter Homosexualitatis problema: AAS 79 (1987), 543-554. Catechism of the Catholic Church, 2358.Read notification:
There are many such documents issued by Benedict XVI (then Cardinal Ratzenger) that need to be brought out into the light for people to realize how arbitrary, out of touch they are with the accepted research and contrived in their sentencing process of academics and scholars, lacking clarity of documentation and the explanations of the facts. Innocent people have had their lives destroyed by these shams of justice inquisitions. By Benedict XVI silencing these people from freely expressing their work based on the facts about homosexual orientation caused others like myself to suffer needlessly trying to conform to the Vatican's antigay teachings, which then were taught that homosexual tendencies could be changed. It is these kinds of acts that are crimes against humanity that have to be identified and stopped and the people who orchestrate these crimes need to be held libel for their actions.
Pope condemns gay equality laws ahead of first UK visit
Riazat Butt - guardian.co.uk,
February 1, 2010
Pope Blasts U.K. Anti-Discrimination Laws CBS NEWS
In Speech, Benedict Raises Fears that Vatican Could Be Prosecuted for Stances Against Gays – February 2, 2010
United States Conference of Catholic Bishops (USCCB) Condemns New Ways Ministry;
Gay Ministry Responds - America Magazine,
February 6, 2010
…“the Vatican has accepted no responsibility for its role in facilitating the sexual abuse of children,”
By ROBERT MACKEY
New York Times News
February 16, 2010
Italian Catholic scandal draws in Pope Benedict
By NICOLE WINFIELD
AP – abc NEWS/International
February 9, 2010
Richard Owen in Rome - Times Online
February 9, 2010
Commentary: what lies behind
Vatican's denial of involvement in Boffo affair?
Priest says he was pressurised into taking blame for pope
by Paddy Agnew, Derek Scally and Patsy McGarry
The Irish Times
Priest says he was bullied into taking fall for Pope in abuse scandal
Vatican Asking For Male Prostitutes
“Naturam expellas furca, tamen usque recurret.”
Though you drive Nature out with a pitchfork,
she will still find her way back.
Hurricane Katrina - Nancy Pelosi - Washington, DC – 2005
Accountability Benedict XVI Child Sexual Abuse
Who Can Mock This Church?
By Nicholas D. Kristof – The New York Times
NO EVIDENCE SUPPORTS THESE [homosexual] STEREOTYPES
- Judge Vaughn Walker Ruling - California Prop 8. August 4, 2010
[Unsubstantiated] --- RELIGIOUS BELIEFS that gay and lesbian relationships are SINFUL or INFERIOR to heterosexual relationships
HARM gays and lesbians.
Judge Vaughn Walker Ruling - California Prop 8. August 4, 2010
STEREOTYPES and MISINFORMATION have resulted
in social and legal disadvantages for gays and lesbians.
Judge Vaughn Walker Ruling - California Prop 8. August 4, 2010
California - Prop 8 judgment, August 4, 2010 - Gay marriage
“Religious beliefs that gay and lesbian relationships are sinful or inferior to heterosexual relationships harm gays and lesbians.”
Judge Vaughn Walker
On Prop 8, it's the evidence, stupid
By Lisa Bloom - CNN.com
and related links:
American Academy of Pediatrics
The Effects of Marriage, Civil Union, and Domestic Partnership Laws on
the Health and Well-being of Children – 2006
American Medical Association
Policy Regarding Sexual Orientation
GLBT Advisory Committee
Children with Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender Parents
American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
National Association of Social Workers (NASW)
Calls Proposition 8 Decision
“A Great Day in the Struggle for Human Rights”
August 11, 2010
Association of Gay and Lesbian Psychiatrists
Support of Legal Recognition of Same-Sex Civil Marriage
Resolution on Sexual Orientation and Marriage - Research Summary
American Psychological Association
Psychologist testifies on 'remarkable similarities' of
gay and straight couples
By Maura Dolan - January 14, 2010
Los Angeles Times
"No sensible person can imagine that the
sexes differ in matters of love
as they do in matters of clothing.
The intelligent lover of beauty will be attracted to beauty in whichever
gender he finds it."
The Psychology of the Closet:
Governor McGreevey's New Clothes
by Jack Drescher, M.D. – August 27, 2004
Is It Possible to Be Against Same-Sex Marriage
Without Being Homophobic?
Carlos A. Ball
Professor of Law at Rutgers University
August 24, 2010 – Huffington Post
The Closet: Psychological Issues of Being In and Coming Out
By Jack Drescher, M.D.
October 1, 2004
The Pope Is Not Gay
Andrew Sullivan – The Daily Dish
The Psychology of the Closeted Individual and Coming Out – 2007
by Jack Drescher, M.D.
Karl Rove… "had been working with Republicans to make sure that anti-gay initiatives and referenda would appear on November ballots in 2004 and 2006 to help Republicans."
August 25, 2010
Bush Campaign Chief and Former RNC Chair Ken Mehlman:
I'm Gay – by Marc Ambinder - The Atlantic
“Someday, maybe, there will exist a well-informed, well considered and yet fervent public conviction that the most deadly of all possible sins is the mutilation of a child’s spirit.” Erik Erikson
Kids Are Being Hurt!!!
…whoever causes one of these little ones who believe in Me to stumble, it would be better for him to have a heavy millstone hung around his neck, and to be drowned in the depth of the sea. Matthew 18:6
Important note: No disrespect meant to Pope Benedict XVI or the hierarchy, the one and only concern is the safety and well-being of children.
Kids Are Being Hurt !!!