Wednesday, April 5, 2017

The KISS of LIFE - - - Cultural Differences - - Social-Environmental Norms - Influence on - Early Childhood Psychological Developmental Years - - and - - SOCIETAL ATTITUDES TOWARD HOMOSEXUALITY - - Argentina - vs - curia and hierarchy (Hitler & Nazi Regime and US Sen. Joseph McCarthy) - - from - TANGO & GAY PRIESTS (2013) - to - ROOFTOPS & ORLANDO MASS SHOOTING (2016)


Prayer of St. Francis of Assisi 












K i s s   o f   L i f e
by Rocco Morabito, 1968 Pulitzer Prize
















I c o n i c   W a r   M e m o r i e s
Generational 




























V-Day and The Kiss
New York City's Times Square - August 14, 1945














































G a y   M a r i n e’ s   K i s s
Returned from Afghanistan
Kaneohe, Hawaii - February 27, 2012

































































S e e i n g   T w o   M e n   K i s s i n g 
Omar Mateen - Got 
'V e r y   A n g r y' 



























Pope Francis decries Orlando massacre and prays for victims 
June 12, 2016
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Pope Francis says - Christians should apologize for helping to marginalize gays
June 26, 2016 





T h e   K i s s

“It’s a celebration of love–it’s just that simple”






“It’s a celebration of love–it’s just that simple,” 
the artist and designer Frank Viva says of his cover for the June 27th issue [2016]. Viva originally conceived of a silhouetted couple a few years ago as a celebration of the Supreme Court ruling that struck down the discriminatory Defense of Marriage Act. (See the first iteration of the image below.) 





















C u l t u r a l   D i f f e r e n c e s














Social-Environmental Norms 

Early Childhood Psychological Developmental Years

Societal Attitudes Toward Homosexuality




















Short Film - La Furca Milonga Queer
A n   A r g e n t i n e   T a n g o



T H E   T A N G O
B u e n o s   A i r e s,   A r g e n t i n a


A brief Tango History 
by Murray Pfeffer
     The Tango, often called 'The Argentine Tango', is Argentina's contribution to the world of dance. The Tango came from the brothels and low cafes of Buenos Aires at the turn of the century. However, at it's very beginning, it was a ballet-like dance between two men, which, just a little later, became the obscene dance of the brothels where both men and women had the opportunity to rub their bodies together. Over the years, the Tango has changed becoming an elegant and stylish dance evoking a picture of high society, with women in sleek glittering evening gowns and men in tuxedos and tails…



















Tango Macho - “Los Hermanos Macana”


Tango: Theme of Class and Nation 
Julie M. Taylor 
Ethnomusicology, Vol. 20, No. 2. (May, 1976), pp. 273-291. 
A favorite Argentine national pastime consists of debate over the supposed demise or latest claim to revival of the national dance. Is the tango already dead? Or are the dance and its music not only alive but one of the most complete expressions of Argentine character? Endless discussions of these conflicting opinions and the deep concern expressed on all sides over the death of the tango constitute the most important evidence that the dance, or at least its accompanying complex of music, song, and tradition, lives on in the minds of the Argentines. Other indications of this fact abound in a first glance at everyday life in the nation's cities and towns: the presence in every bookshop of current popularized analyses of the dance; the superabundance of recordings of each tango and each tango artist; the proportion of broadcasting hours dedicated solely to tango; the re-runs of old tango movies; and the use of the dance complex as the subject of new theater productions, art exhibits, and lectures. 
An examination of the continuing role of the tango in Argentina today entails a definition of the interrelated elements of tango as folklore, song, and dance. The following investigation deals with three groups of themes: those consisting of the characteristics of the environment which produced the tango, those forming the moral or emotional base of the tango and explicitly stated in its lyrics, and those found in the choreography of the dance itself. 
…Perhaps the most striking characteristic of the groups of tango enthusiasts is the fact that the membership is exclusively male. Not only that, but none of the female friends or relatives of the members show the slightest evidence of interest in the tango. Active interest in the dance complex appears to be entirely male; women develop an interest in tango only if they develop interest in an hombre tanguero. This seems to be a pattern which has not changed much over the years from the days when men danced together to the organitos and in the brothels through the era of the cafe-bar to the present. Fifty years ago Felix Weingartner wrote, "The majority of the women who dance tango do so quite badly, while the men are almost all excellent dancers" (quoted in de Lara 1961:99). In 1966 a porteno told me that he as a boy in the 1940s had learned tango when he and a group of boys became interested in the subject together. They all learned to dance by practicing with each other. "It was difficult to find women who danced well. I practiced with my sisters and my cousins but the girls did it badly. I did not have a good partner until I married and taught my wife.”…










“La Biela” - Buenos Aires





















L G B T   R i g h t s   i n   A r g e n t i n a
Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) rights in Argentina are among the most advanced in its region. Upon legalising same-sex marriage on July 15, 2010, Argentina became the first country in Latin America, the second in the Americas, and the tenth in the world to do so. The country also "has one of the world's most comprehensive transgender rights laws": its Gender Identity Law, passed in 2012, made Argentina the "only country that allows people to change their gender identities without facing barriers such as hormone therapy, surgery or psychiatric diagnosis that labels them as having an abnormality". In 2015, the World Health Organization cited Argentina as an exemplary country for providing transgender rights. The country also allows bisexual and gay men to donate blood and, in 2016, agreed to join the Global Equality Fund.
In Pew Research Center's 2013 Global Attitudes Survey, Argentina was the Latin American country with the most positive societal attitudes towards homosexuality, with about three-quarters (74%) of those surveyed saying it should be accepted. The country's capital and largest city, Buenos Aires, has become an important recipient of LGBT tourism and has been described as "Latin America's gay capital".
Law regarding same-sex sexual activity
Same-sex sexual activity in Argentina has been legal since 1887.:88 The age of consent is 15 for all sexual orientations…





















A Media Luz E. Donato (Tango) Dancing


T a n g o 
Julie Taylor
Department of Anthropology - Princeton University
Ethos of Melancholy
Para lafamilia Dickinson, que siempro estuvo. 
What the tango says about Argentina, the nation that created it, illuminates aspects of Argentine behavior that have long puzzled outsiders. In many foreign minds, the Argentine tourist, the Argentine military, or Argentine politicians and their followers conjure up images that at first glance seem to convey arrogant aggressiveness often carried to extremes outsiders find inconceivable. What foreigners do not realize is that both public posture and private introspection constantly confront Argentines with excruciating questions about their own identity. Are they civilized or barbarian? European or Latin American? a respected nation or a banana republic? an independent agent or a pawn? 
Answers to these questions would not seem to be forthcoming from a dance defined as the tango is by the world outside of Latin America. In the popular image of the tango, Valentino or a counterpart, dramatically dashing in bolero, frilled shirt, and cummerbund, flings a partner backward over the ruffled train of her flamenco costume. One or another holds a rose. Out of this Andalucian vignette of total surrender to music and passion emerges the idea that tango lyrics express similar exuberance. Even when the words tell of lost love, treacherous fate, and an unjust world, a romantic hero supposedly sings them, gesturing flamboyantly to broadcast his sensitivity. 
In dramatic contrast, in the classic Argentine tango, closed-faced men practiced the dance with each other and then, fedoras pulled down like masks, gripped women against rigid torsos sheathed in sober double-breasted jackets. Their feet, though subject to the same grim control, executed intricate figures all .but independent from the rest of their bodies. Far from flamenco ruffles and roses, Argentines had invented the tango in the brothels on the edges of Buenos Aires as it thrust its slums ever further into the pampas at the turn of the century. The dancers demonstrated their skill by being able to perform like somber automatons, providing them with psychic space to contemplate a bitter destiny that had driven them into themselves. 
The tango reflects this Argentine ambivalence. Although a major symbol of the Argentines' national identity, its themes emphasize a painful uncertainty as to the precise nature of that identity. For Argentines, this dance is deadly serious. In the tango, as in their personal lives and their politics, they tend to dwell on real or imagined affronts… 
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D a n c i n g   T a n g o   i n   B u e n o s   A i r e s


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B u e n o s   A i r e s   T a n g o   F e s t i v a l
July 2, 2013

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A MEDIA LUZ - TANGO


“No llores por mi Argentina”  Nacha Guevara


Argentinian Dinner - Tango Music, 
Background Music, Best Music from Argentina


Mein Film vom 17.August 2016 (Tango Argentina - La Paloma)




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D a n c i n g   t o   t h e   m u s i c   o f   l o v e   
i n 
B u e n o s   A i r e s
May 10, 2012

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Essentials of Buenos Aires: 
Evita, tango and pope's hometown
Mar 28, 2017 




















Hundreds Tango Dance for Pope's Birthday
December 17, 2014




































































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C u l t u r a l   D i f f e r e n c e s

Social-Environmental Norms 

Early Childhood Psychological Developmental Years

Societal Attitudes Toward Homosexuality





The Global Divide on Homosexuality
Pew Research Center - June 4, 2013
Overview
As the United States and other countries grapple with the issue of same-sex marriage, a new Pew Research Center survey finds huge variance by region on the broader question of whether homosexuality should be accepted or rejected by society…
…In Argentina, the first country in the region to legalize gay marriage in 2010, about three-quarters (74%) say homosexuality should be accepted, as do clear majorities in Chile (68%), Mexico (61%) and Brazil (60%); about half of Venezuelans (51%) also express acceptance…
Where Homosexuality Is Rejected
Publics in Africa and in predominantly Muslim countries remain among the least accepting of homosexuality. In sub-Saharan Africa, at least nine-in-ten in Nigeria (98%), Senegal (96%), Ghana (96%), Uganda (96%) and Kenya (90%) believe homosexuality should not be accepted by society. Even in South Africa where, unlike in many other African countries, homosexual acts are legal and discrimination based on sexual orientation is unconstitutional, 61% say homosexuality should not be accepted by society, while just 32% say it should be accepted.
Overwhelming majorities in the predominantly Muslim countries surveyed also say homosexuality should be rejected, including 97% in Jordan, 95% in Egypt, 94% in Tunisia, 93% in the Palestinian territories, 93% in Indonesia, 87% in Pakistan, 86% in Malaysia, 80% in Lebanon and 78% in Turkey…
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On Gay Priests, Pope Francis Asks, ‘Who Am I to Judge?’
 July 29, 2013 
ROME — For generations, homosexuality has largely been a taboo topic for the Vatican, ignored altogether or treated as “an intrinsic moral evil,” in the words of the previous pope.
In that context, brief remarks by Pope Francis suggesting that he would not judge priests for their sexual orientation, made aboard the papal airplane on the way back from his first foreign trip, to Brazil, resonated through the church. Never veering from church doctrine opposing homosexuality, Francis did strike a more compassionate tone than that of his predecessors, some of whom had largely avoided even saying the more colloquial “gay.”
“If someone is gay and he searches for the Lord and has good will, who am I to judge?” Francis told reporters, speaking in Italian but using the English word “gay.”…
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Pope [Francis] Welcomes Gay Luxembourg Prime Minister And His Husband, At Vatican
April 6, 2017
This is extraordinary!
The Pope recently welcomed the world's only openly gay leader, and his husband at the Vatican.
Luxembourg’s Prime Minister Xavier Bettel and his partner Gauthier Destenay were invited by Catholic officials to the Holy See.





Pope Francis's Welcome To World's Only Openly Gay Prime Minister Rekindles Vatican Controversy 
April 9, 2017 
The photos of Bettel and husband, who entered a civil partnership in 2010 and married in 2015 after Luxembourg's legislators approved gay marriage, being greeted by Archbishop Georg Gänswein, Prefect of the Pontifical House and Personal Secretary of Pope Benedict XVI, have been applauded by gay rights organizations and with equal fervor criticized by their conservative Catholic counterparts…
























EU leaders converge on Rome to rekindle sense of unity 
March 24, 2017
ROME (AP) — Posing with Pope Francis before Michelangelo’s masterpiece “The Last Judgment” at the Vatican, European Union leaders started their weekend pilgrimage in Rome hoping that a visit to the cradle of their unity project could somehow rekindle the vigor of the bloc’s youth.
More and more, it looks like the EU’s future will have less unanimity and more areas where groups of EU nations advance on their own when faced with resistance from others on specific issues, Prime Minister Xavier Bettel of founding EU nation Luxembourg told The Associated Press…



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T h e   K i s s
“It’s a celebration of love–it’s just that simple”






























S e e i n g   T w o   M e n   K i s s i n g 
Omar Mateen - Got 
'V e r y   A n g r y' 


















Orlando, FL - Worst Mass Shooting In US History 
June 13, 2016 



Pulse Nightclub Shooting Victims Sue Gunman’s Employer, Wife - June 14, 2016





















Orlando gay club shooting: World pays tribute to victims with vigils and rainbow flags
June 20, 2016 




















Monday, July 11, 2016 photo shows a makeshift memorial outside the Pulse nightclub, 
a month after the mass shooting in 
Orlando, Fla.




H o m o s e x u a l 
S E L E C T I V E   I N A T T E N T I O N
D i s s o c i a t i o n




Orlando shooter Omar Mateen was gay, former classmate says - June 14, 2016 
The FBI is investigating reports that Orlando nightclub shooter Omar Mateen used gay dating apps and regularly visited Pulse before he shot more than 100 people inside, killing 49.
At least five people have come forward saying they saw Mateen at gay clubs, painting a complicated portrait of the American-born Muslim whom the FBI believes was radicalized by terrorist groups.
One former classmate of Omar Mateen’s 2006 police academy class told The Palm Beach Post that he believed Mateen was gay, saying Mateen once tried to pick him up at a bar.
The classmate said that he, Mateen and other classmates would hang out, sometimes going to gay nightclubs, after classes at Indian River Community College police academy. One night, he said Mateen asked him if he was gay. He said no, because he wasn’t telling people he was gay at the time…
…“He said, ‘Well if you were gay, you would be my type.’ I said OK and just went on with the night,” he said. “It was not anything too crazy, but I take that as a pick-up line.”
He believed Mateen was gay, but not open about it. Mateen was awkward, and for a while the classmate and the rest in the group of friends felt sorry for him…
Jim Van Horn, 71, told The Associated Press that Mateen was a regular at the club. “He was trying to pick up people. Men,” he said.
While acknowledging he didn’t know Mateen well, Van Horn said: “I think it’s possible that he was trying to deal with his inner demons, of trying to get rid of his anger of homosexuality.”… 
        ...The Los Angeles Times reported that Mateen attended the Pulse nightclub possibly as many as a dozen times before the rampage. Kevin West said he had messaged Mateen back and forth over a year’s time on the gay dating app Jack’d but never met him until he saw Mateen crossing the street about 1 a.m. Sunday...
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D i s s o c i a t i o n
S e l e c t i v e   I n a t t e n t i o n 
Jack Drescher, MD,  2004
What psychological mechanisms facilitate separating one's sexual identity from the rest of one's persona? Sullivan's (1956) concept of dissociation may be illuminating, particularly its most common aspect: selective inattention. A ubiquitous, nonpathological process, selective inattention makes life more manageable, like tuning out the background noise on a busy street. However, through dissociation of anxiety-provoking knowledge about the self, a whole double life can be lived and yet, in some ways, not be known. Clinical presentations of closeted gay people may lie somewhere in  severity  between selective inattention--most commonly seen in the case of homosexually self-aware patients thinking about "the possibility" that they might be gay--to more severe dissociation--in which any hint of same-sex feelings resides totally out of conscious awareness. More severe forms of dissociation are commonly observed in married men who are homosexually self-aware but cannot permit the thought of themselves as gay (Roughton, 2002)…
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17 Antigay Leaders Exposed as Gay or Bi - January 27, 2016 
The internet was buzzing in January when an editor at a gay website in Virginia wrote that he'd encountered an antigay Republican lawmaker while on Grindr, without naming the person. Not every antigay crackpot is actually gay, but there's no shortage of those who actually are. Here are some hypocrites who just couldn't practice what they preached…
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Given Uganda's homophobia, why does it lead the way in Googling gay porn? -  10 January 2014
Is there a connection, then, between homophobia and suppressed homosexuality, along the lines of "me thinks he protesteth too much"? Is it that homosexual desires, when shut out because of some sense of shame, can easily express themselves as a form of homophobia? When the US conservative evangelical pastor Ted Haggard, well known for his anti-gay preaching, was discovered to have been paying a masseur for gay sex, he explained that "I think I was partially so vehement because of my own war". Freud coined the description "reaction-formation", in which anxiety-generating feelings are masked by an exaggerated reaction in the opposite direction. There is some experimental evidence to back this up, with one study showing that 20% of those who self-described as "highly straight" indicated some level of same-sex attraction. This discrepancy is often put down to highly controlling parents who do not allow their children room to explore their sexual identity.
Yes, of course, there are many people who do not experience same-sex attraction who are anti-gay. But one of the features of reaction-formation is its paranoia and lack of proportion. And this is precisely what the scaremongering nonsense about gay people being out to get our children – a common line in the Ugandan debate – clearly demonstrates. In conservative religious environments where God is depicted as a powerful all-controlling parent, it makes sense to me that this reaction-formation will be particularly strong…  



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ISIS, many of their enemies share a homicidal hatred of gays - CBS/AP - June 13, 2016 
REYHANLI, Turkey - The Islamic State of Iraq and Syria (ISIS) has frequently used the Islamic holy month of Ramadan - which is supposed to be for fasting and prayer - as an excuse to step up its slaughter of people it considers heretics.
Last year, ISIS supporters bombed a Shiite mosque in Kuwait and attacked tourists at a Tunisian beach resort, among other atrocities, during the holy month.
Last month, an ISIS leader put out a call for "a month of hurt" in the United States as well as Europe during Ramadan.
On Monday, the group called the Orlando nightclub shooter Omar Mateen "one of the soldiers of the caliphate in America," and Mateen pledged allegiance to the group in a 911 call during the shooting. However there has been no evidence uncovered so far of a direct link between the shooter and the group's Mideast leaders.
Still, the Orlando nightclub massacre would fall in line with ISIS' goals, as the group has a history of targeting gays with brutal public killings…
The most recent, self-reported execution the terrorists undertook happened around May 7 of this year, according to OutRight. A "blindfolded young boy" can be seen in photos getting tossed off a roof and then pelted with stones after landing, with an audience of men and children taking part.
ISIS frequently reserves one of its most gruesome methods of killing for suspected gays -- throwing them to their death from building rooftops
…Videos ISIS has released show masked militants dangling men over the precipices of buildings by their legs to drop them head-first or tossing them over the edge. At least 36 men in Syria and Iraq have been killed by ISIS militants on charges of sodomy, according to OutRight Action International, though its Middle East and North Africa coordinator, Hossein Alizadeh, said it was not possible to confirm the sexual orientation of the victims…
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ISIS stone 'gay' man to death after he survived being thrown off a roof - May 5, 2015 
ISIS militants have released harrowing photographs of a gay man being stoned to death after he survived their first attempt at killing him.
Eleven men, one of them holding an Islamic State flag, held the blindfolded man at the top of a tall building, taking pictures on mobile phones before throwing their victim off the roof.


The killing, which supposedly took place in Raqqua, Syria – although other sources say it happened somewhere in Iraq – was watched by a large crowd.
A picture showing the man half way to earth circulated on Twitter over the weekend, with images of the injured man lying on the ground following soon.


The victim survived the fall but, badly injured and unable to defend himself, was killed by men, some of them armed, from the crowd who were queueing up to throw rocks’, according to the Daily Mail.
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ISIS throw 4 more gay men to their deaths - 5 October 2015
Executions were carried out in two Iraqi cities over the weekend
Islamic State (ISIS) militants executed four more gay men in Iraq over the weekend.
Two young men were thrown off the roof a building in Mosul under the pretext they were a gay couple.
‘On Sunday afternoon, Daesh called on the people of Mosul to gather in the square of Bab al-Toub in order to witness the execution of the two allegedly men,’ an eyewitness told ARA News.
‘The victims were taken to the top of a building and were brutally thrown off the roof.’
Also on Sunday, the Terror Monitor group tweeted photos of a separate execution of two ‘gay’ men, who were thrown from a building in Ninevah into a pile of cement blocks.
The photos show an imam reading out their sentence and large crowd of spectators:


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Islamic State group targets gays with brutal public killings - June 13, 2016
The Associated Press is reproducing an article on IS treatment of gays that initially ran on Dec. 2 and was part of a 2015 AP series of stories, “Inside the Caliphate,” which explored life under Islamic State rule…



In this picture posted on a social media account affiliated with the Islamic State group on June 14, 2015, IS militants stone a man accused of violating the extremists' ban on homosexuality after they threw him from a roof in the city of Homs, Syria. One witness of such a killing in Syria described to The Associated Press how the victim pleaded with militants to shoot him in the head rather than drop him from a nearby four-story building. (militant photo via AP)       Photo

Islamic State group publicly killing gays in Syria and Iraq to show its 'ideological purity’ - December 2, 2015
REYHANLI, Turkey (AP) — Before a crowd of men on a street in the Syrian city of Palmyra, the masked Islamic State group judge read out the sentence against the two men convicted of homosexuality: They would be thrown to their deaths from the roof of the nearby Wael Hotel.
He asked one of the men if he was satisfied with the sentence. Death, the judge told him, would help cleanse him of his sin.
"I'd prefer it if you shoot me in the head," 32-year-old Hawas Mallah replied helplessly. The second man, 21-year-old Mohammed Salameh, pleaded for a chance to repent, promising never to have sex with a man again, according to a witness among the onlookers that sunny July morning who gave The Associated Press a rare first-hand account.
"Take them and throw them off," the judge ordered. Other masked extremists tied the men's hands behind their backs and blindfolded them. They led them to the roof of the four-story hotel, according to the witness, who spoke in the Turkish city of Reyhanli on condition he be identified only by his first name, Omar, for fear of reprisals.
Notorious for their gruesome methods of killing, the Islamic State group reserves one of its most brutal for suspected homosexuals. Videos it has released show masked militants dangling men over the precipices of buildings by their legs to drop them head-first or tossing them over the edge. At least 36 men in Syria and Iraq have been killed by IS militants on charges of sodomy, according to the New York-based OutRight Action International, though its Middle East and North Africa coordinator, Hossein Alizadeh, said it was not possible to confirm the sexual orientation of the victims.
The fear of a horrific death among gay men under Islamic State rule is further compounded by their isolation in a deeply conservative society that largely shuns them…
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Blindfolded, bound and thrown off buildings … inside the ISIS Sharia court’s treatment of homosexuals - 2nd December 2015
…“They are violating God’s laws and doing something that is forbidden in Islam, so this is a legitimate punishment,” said Hajji Mohammed, a resident of the
IS-held northern Iraqi city of Mosul. There the group has thrown men suspected of being gay off the Insurance Building, a landmark about 10 stories high.


…By employing the grisly method of execution, the Islamic State group aims to 
show to radicals that it is unflinchingly carrying out the most extreme strains in Islam — a sort of “ideological purity” which the group boasts distinguishes it even from other militants. The punishment “will protect the Muslims from treading the same rotten course that the West has chosen to pursue,” IS proclaimed in its online English-language magazine Dabiq…
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Isis has killed at least 25 men in Syria suspected of being gay, group claims - Tuesday 5 January 2016
Figures revealed as reports emerged of a teenager in the Syrian city of Deir ez-Zor was thrown to his death
At least 25 people have been murdered in Syria by the so-called Islamic State for being gay, a UK-based monitoring group has told the Independent.
Amid reports of a 15-year-old boy being thrown from the rooftop of a high-rise building in the Syrian city of Deir ez-Zor - seemingly the latest victim of the Islamist group's brutal crackdown - the Syrian Observatory for Human Rights told The Independent that dozens of men had been killed by Isis jihadists.
Six have been stoned to death, three killed from direct shooting to the head and 16 thrown from high-rise buildings. Those that survived the fall, the group added, were then stoned on the streets below by scores of bystanders. Two of those killed were under 18. 
It is alleged that the man who raped the 15-year-old, a senior Isis officer called Abu Zaid al-Jazrawi, was spared execution.
Instead, he faced a demotion and was forced to leave Syria and join the fighting fronts in north-western Iraq.
“The horrific execution took place in front of large crowd,” said Sarai al-Din, a local media activist who witnessed the murder, told Syrian news agency ARA. 
Speaking to the news agency, civil rights activist Rawd Ahmed, said: “Daesh (another name for Isis) accuses people of being gay only on the basis of some superficial information without any investigation. Although the Islamic law bans homosexuality, the brutal punishment by Daesh has never been witnessed throughout history.” 
Footage of terrified men in blindfolds being escorted to the rooftops of high-rise buildings and then being thrown to their death has become commonplace. It has led human rights groups to become increasingly concerned that this extreme violence is inspiring other militias in the war-torn region to attack men they suspect of being gay…
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Study: Islamic fundamentalism is not a marginal phenomenon in Europe - January 16, 2015
Last week's attacks in Paris, committed in the name of a god, reopen a badly-healed scar in Europe. The world once again turns towards religious fundamentalism. A new study shows that hostility towards other out-groups is not an isolated phenomenon among Muslims living in Europe; but nor is it a synonym of violence. According to the author of the study, Ruud Koopmans, director of the WZB Berlín Social Science Centre (Germany), "Islam is not the problem”…
…Although violence does not necessarily form part of this ideology, hostility towards other out-groups including homosexuals, Jews, and Westerners (in the case of Muslims) or Muslims (in the case of Christians) is evident. As a whole, Muslims are shown to be more hostile towards the three out-groups mentioned above, with between 25% and 30% rejecting these groups. Christian hostility is not as much as 5%.
However, independently, Christian fundamentalists show greater hostility towards Muslims (more than 50%) and towards Jews (between 30 and 35% of Christian fundamentalists were revealed to be hostile). In the case of Islamic fundamentalistsmore than 70% of followers feel hostility towards homosexuals, Jews and Westerners.
Religious fundamentalism is closely linked to hostility towards other out-groups," says Koopmans. But social and economic levels also have a bearing. Individuals with a high social and economic status are more tolerant and less xenophobic…
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Islamic State of Iraq and Syria
The Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL, IPA /ˈaɪsᵻl/), also known as the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria[note 1] (ISIS, /ˈaɪsᵻs/),[31] and by its Arabic language acronym Daesh (داعش dāʿish, IPA: [ˈdaːʕiʃ]), is a Salafi jihadist militant group that follows an Islamic fundamentalist, Wahhabi doctrine of Sunni Islam…
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ISIS stands for Islamic State in Iraq and Syria and is an extremist militant group that rules by Wahhabi/Salafi law. In Arabic, the group is also known as Daesh. An example of ISIS is the terrorist group that is known for kidnapping western journalists and aid workers as part of their tactics.



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THE ORLANDO MASSACRE: 
WHERE DOES THE HATE COME FROM?
June 13, 2016