Friday, September 17, 2010

The Emergence of Political Homophobia in Indonesia: Masculinity and National Belonging – by Tom Boellstorff - University of California, Irvine, USA - 2004

abstract This paper explores an unprecedented series of violent acts against ‘gay’ Indonesians beginning in September 1999. Indonesia is often characterized as ‘tolerant’ of homosexuality. This is a false belief, but one containing a grain of truth. To identify this grain of truth I distinguish between ‘heterosexism’ and ‘homophobia,’ noting that Indonesia has been marked by a predominance of heterosexism over homophobia. I examine the emergence of a political homophobia directed at public events where gay men stake a claim to Indonesia’s troubled civil society. That such violence is seen as the properly masculine response to these events indicates how the nation may be gaining a new masculinist cast. In the new Indonesia, male–male desire can increasingly be construed as a threat to normative masculinity, and thus to the nation itself.

Conclusion: The Emergence of Political Homophobia
It is in the Indonesian context, where heterosexism has predominated over homophobia, that the recent attacks gain such significance. For the Muslim youths involved in these attacks, the public presence of non-normative genders and sexualities became interpreted in phobic terms, as a psychic threat to proper masculinity. This made violence not only thinkable but sensible as an emotional ‘gut reaction’ to what was now interpreted as an assault on the nation’s manhood. We see a shift from an intellectual assumption, rarely voiced because taken for granted, that all Indonesians should marry heterosexually, to an emotional assumption, carried out with knives and clubs, that non-normative men threaten the nation’s future. I term this a shift from everyday heterosexism to political homophobia, and the character of this emotional rage shows us that the nation envisioned by these attackers is normatively male. While all homophobia has political effects, the notion of ‘political homophobia’ is useful for highlighting violence deployed as a means of controlling who can make claims to belonging. The violence of the Kaliurang and Solo incidents was directed at demands for inclusion in a new public sphere and not at the mundane romances and seductions of everyday life…

Single, Angry, Straight Male... Seeks Same?
By Jesse Bering – January 30, 2009 – Scientific America

Benedict XVI confusing Atheism with Hitler’s Nazism and Benedict's Unchristian teachings of JUSTIFIED DISCRIMINATION which is life threatening to adults especially children
Kids Are Being Hurt!!!
September 15, 2010
Fr. Marty Kurylowicz – Thalamus Center

Hating Gays: An Overview of Scientific Studies
by Gregory M. Herek
Public Broadcasting Service (PBS)

Shining a light on closeted politicians
By Richard Leiby
The Washington Post / May 27, 2009

Gay Marriage - WITCH HUNTS ->The Crucible (1996) -> McCarthyism 1940’s -1950’s, -> Benedict XVI 2005

Vatican's Gay Witch-Hunts Cause -> Lifetime HARM to Children

THREATS, SILENCE, HARM AND DISPOSAL of Catholic Personnel Supportive of LGBT Adults and Children - Ratzinger/Benedict XVI’s Directives To Hierarchy

Homophobia Is Killing Our Youth
by Jason Mannino – April 17, 2009 – Huffington Post

White-Hot 'Outrage' Over The Capitol Hill Closet
May 9, 2009 – National Public Radio (NPR)

Jack Drescher, M.D.

Gay Marriage -> Restores “Hope of Love” To Children In Early Childhood – Marriage Equality – March 23, 2010 – By Fr. Marty Kurylowicz

“Someday, maybe, there will exist a well-informed, well considered and yet fervent public conviction that the most deadly of all possible sins is the mutilation of a child’s spirit.”
Erik Erikson

No comments: