THIS IS MY CHAPTER:
Some of these well known sex-linked behaviors are...
Self-preening, which may be done for health maintenance or as a display to attract, or to impress others.
Allied to self preening, self-decorating or self-m
The grooming of others: Such grooming behaviors can have specific bonding, nurturing, age or 'pecking order' stimuli and effects.
Allied to preening and grooming, other care-giving behaviors, such as stroking, holding, washing and wound cleaning.
Nurturing behaviors such as feeding and incubating eggs.
Nest building and Habitat modification.
Attending a Queen, or reproductive female, as part of her retinue.
General Displaying and purposeful (not unconscious) sexually receptive or submissive sex-signaling.
Accepting the sexual advances of males
Edited references with explanatory foreword
In general, we humans share our genetics and biochemistry with as varied life-forms as mammals, birds, insects, microbes and even plants. Objectively studying other life forms, and especially other social species, can teach us a lot about our own species. Why, how and what is communicated within and between species in earth's community of creations? What are the sex-linked behaviors, messages and media that we may observe within and across species?
Other species communicate with sight and visual signaling / display / movement, with sound / vibration, touch, and smell / chemical signaling, and so do we. They have languages, and so do we. They sing and we sing. They have their pre-mating rituals and we get all fixed-up before going out on a Friday night. They groom, preen, display and then dance, and we groom, preen, display and then dance.
They teach their young. They learn, and so do we. Some of them care for their elders, and others abandon them...and so do we. Some of them are devoted parents and others abandon their young.
They form heterosexual monogamous pair-bonds and so do we. They form same-sex monogamous pair-bonds and so do we. Their sexual activity is both reproductive and non-reproductive. They exhibit sex dimorphic related sex-typed play and social behavior, and so do we. They genetically transmit sex-linked traits and so do we. They have both reproductive classes and non-reproductive and intersexed
classes of beings within their species, and so do we. They have exclusively same-sex attracted members in their species and so do we. They have genetically, hormonally and behaviorally sex-reversed members in their species and so do we. They dominate and we dominate. They submit and we submit. The use sex to dominate, seduce, trick, trap, threaten, intimidate and kill each other, and unfortunately so do we.
Other species form families, tribes and complex mega societies and so do we. They create matriarchal and patriarchal families and so do we. They create male and female hierarchical social systems and 'pecking orders' and so do we. They create juvenile peer bonding social groups and so do we. They form alliances and symbiotic relationships with other groups of their own species and even other species. They govern by consensus. Sometimes they gather in great numbers, traveling great distances, and so do we. They return to their 'childhood' and ancestral homes and so do we. They have rituals for their dead. They dream. They can be vicious and/or gentle, selfish and/or altruistic. They can struggle or give up.
They get tired, frustrated, confused, hysterical, terrified, bored and depressed. They threaten. They bluff. They mock and mimic. They court and break-up. They groom, preen, adorn/decorate, modify and camouflage themselves, and so do we. They suffer, weep and celebrate, grieve, compete, protect, argue and make-up, nurture, aggress and defend. They nest-build, modify and decorate habitat, use tools and even farm (fungus farming ants) and tame and use other species the same way that we milk cows (ants that keep and 'milk' sugar aphids). They adapt, collect food, migrate, war, etc. and so do we humans.
Much of the essential behavior of many other species is paralleled in our own, and we share many of the same type of neuroendocrine regulating genes, bio-chemical developmental and control mechanisms that are known to be involved in this essential behavior.
It is far past time for the human race to get out of its collective religio-political and pseudo-scientific 'mind-sciences' denial of the plain truth of our physicality. Our bodies are made of the same stuff as all other life on earth, and obey all of the same basic laws of biochemistry and 'nature'. Admitting this does nothing to diminish the uniqueness and sanctity of human life, or to deny the moral and physical freedom, autonomy, integrity and dignity of each precious human being.
DISCIPLINES, FIELDS OF STUDY, DEPARTMENTS AND PROGRAMS
Neurobiology, Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology, Behavioral Neuroendocrinology, Biological Sciences, Insect Biochemistry and Physiology , Comparative Neurology, Social Psychology, Physiological Entomology, Developmental Neurobiology, Entomological Science, Microscopy Research and Technique, Developmental Genetics, Psychiatric Genetics, Neuropsychiatric Genetics, Human Genome, Human Mutation, Experimental Zoology, Ecological Genetics and Physiology, Department of Behavioural Neurobiology, Department of Biological Rhythms and Behaviour, Department of Zoology, Department of Entomology, Department of Anatomy, Pharmacology, and Forensic Medicine, Department of Psychology, Laboratory of Biochemistry, Federal Research Center of Agriculture, Institute for Ornithology, Institute for Small Animal Research, Agricultural Experiment Station, Entomology and Neuroscience Program, ...
AN INTRODUCTION TO THE INTERDISCIPLINARY LANGUAGE OF THIS STUDY
EXAMPLE OF GENERAL VOCABULARY : influences, markers, control, responses, behavior, rationale, study, explain, summary, abstract, determine, confirmed, origin, analysis, separate, demonstrate, incontrovertibly, discovery, current status, signal transduction, stimulation, evidence, relationship, simultaneously, recorded, dynamics, recent, advances, distribution, effects, experience, organization, theory, application, comprehensive, survey, state of knowledge, occurrence, identification, appreciation, description, reveal, ...
EXAMPLES OF SOME SEARCH TERMS AND IMPORTANT PHRASES
genetic basis of male sexual behavior, genetic analysis, genes and circuits that govern behaviors, motivation, mate-searching, courtship, copulation, genes have counterparts, related functions in higher animals, correspondences can be expected, analysis of mutations in mammals, monogamous versus promiscuous sexual behavior, sexual orientation, nervous system generates and controls a complex behavior, behavior is encoded by genes and their regulatory sequences, sex-linked control, behavioral responses, marker gene, behavioral phenomena, social insects, genes that influence social behavior, insect societies, molecular biology of social behavior, molecular genetic study of social behavior, social insects are good models, emerging field, races (of insects), sex pheromone, male and female sexual pheromones, pheromone blend, sex pheromone blend, pheromone production, sex pheromone changes, pheromone biosynthesis activating neuropeptide, genetics of female sex pheromone production, female pheromone production, pheromone blend production in females, blend ratio, intermediate blends, pheromone glands, stable mimics of aldehyde pheromones, pheromonal gland, sex pheromone blend discrimination in two races and hybrids, sex pheromone suppression, pheromonotropic stimulation, pheromone gland cultures in vitro, sex pheromone biosynthesis, control of a major autosomal locus, sequence, male upwind flight responses, controlled by a sex-linked locus, sex-linked control of behavioral responses, phenotypes, sex chromosomes, populations, behavioral-response profiles, wind-tunnel studies, hybrids, paternal profiles, allozyme differences, homozygotes, originating from each grandparent, heterozygous fathers, sex-linked gene, tightly linked, independent of the locus controlling, genetic basis, male sexual behavior, glandular lipids, hormonal regulation, juvenile hormone-mediated gonadotropism, neuroendocrine control, genetic isolation, sympatric host-plant races, mothemergence timing, endogenous control, circadian rhythms, male behavioral response, natural product analogs, morphology, innervation, electroantennogram, sensillum response, antennal sensilla, insect olfaction, sensory physiology, photoperiod, age, competence, immunoreactive, canalization, nongenomic, ecdysteroids, physiological control, sex-peptide-like peptides, PBAN-like substance, combinatorial odor discrimination in the brain, attractive and antagonist odor blends, identifiable glomeruli, behavioral and neurobiological implications of sex-determining factors, sexual differentiation, identified motor terminals, juvenile hormone, chemical signals, hydrochemical, hydrobiological, chemical structure elucidation, biological importance, fright and alarm substances, intrasexual stimulants, school formation, social structure, individual recognition, pheromones and fish migration, chemoreception, changed environmental conditions, sex determination, primary sex differentiation, genetic and developmental mechanisms, anatomical and neurochemical definition of the nucleus, probably homologous, mammalian brain, sexually dimorphic vasotocinergic neurons, estradiol, key endocrine signal, sexual differentiation, activation of reproductive behavior, calbindin-positive neurons, sexual dimorphism, songbird analogue, mammalian auditory cortex, gene regulation, song circuit development, song learning, song rate, dyads, pair bond, social context, testosterone-induced singing, volume of song control nuclei,...
AN IMPORTANT SOURCE FOR BEHAVIORAL NEUROENDOCRINOLOGY RESEARCH:
Jacques Balthazart, Center for Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology, Research Group in Behavioral Neuroendocrinology, University of Liège, 1 Avenue de l'Hôpital (Bat. B36), B-4000 Liège 1, Belgium
THE SOURCE FOR THE VARIOUS JOURNAL ABSTRACTS BELOW:
EXAMPLES OF SCIENTIFIC REFERENCE ABSTRACTS
GENERAL: USING THE BEE AND WASP-ANT SOCIAL SPECIES AS MODELS
Insect societies and the molecular biology of social behavior
BioEssays Volume 19, Issue 12, Date: December 1997, Pages: 1099-1108
Gene E. Robinson, Susan E. Fahrbach, Mark L. Winston
Abstract | References | Full Text: PDF (2868K)
"...honey bees and fire ants, are presented to illustrate the richness of the behavioral phenomena that can be addressed with social insects and to show how they are beginning to be used to study genes that influence social behavior."
Genetic basis of male sexual behavior
Journal of Neurobiology
Volume 54, Issue 1, Date: January 2003, Pages: 93-110
Scott W. Emmons, Jonathan Lipton Abstract | References | Full Text: PDF (537K)
Male sexual behavior is increasingly the focus of genetic study in a variety of animals. Genetic analysis in the soil roundworm Caenorhabditis elegans and the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster has lead to identification of genes and circuits that govern behaviors ranging from motivation and mate-searching to courtship and copulation. Some worm and fly genes have counterparts with related functions in higher animals and many more such correspondences can be expected. Analysis of mutations in mammals can potentially lead to insights into such issues as monogamous versus promiscuous sexual behavior and sexual orientation. Genetic analysis of sexual behavior has implications for understanding how the nervous system generates and controls a complex behavior. It can also help us to gain an appreciation of how behavior is encoded by genes and their regulatory sequences. © 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Neurobiol 54: 93-110, 2003
(SEX PHEROMONE RESPONSES IN INSECTS) SPECIFIC EXAMPLE OF HOW A COMPLEX SEX-SIGNALING RESPONSE SOCIAL BEHAVIOR CAN BE CONTROLLED BY A SINGLE SEX-LINKED GENE: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
Volume 15 Issue 2, Pages 67 - 77 Published Online: 7 Feb 2005 Copyright © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc., A Wiley Company
Sex-linked control of sex pheromone behavioral responses in European corn-borer moths (Ostrinia nubilalis) confirmed with TPI marker gene
Thomas Glover *, Marlene Campbell, Paul Robbins, Wendell Roelofs
Department of Entomology, New York State Agricultural Experiment Station, Cornell University, Geneva, New York
"These results demonstrate incontrovertibly that the response to sex pheromone in male ECB is controlled by a sex-linked gene that is tightly linked to the TPI locus and therefore is independent of the locus controlling pheromone blend production in females."
(SEX PHEROMONE RESPONSES IN FISH) THE COMPLEX SOCIAL SIGNALING AND RESPONSE OF CHEMICAL COMMUNICATION IN FISH
Chemical Signals in Fishes: Theory and Application
Acta Hydrochimica et Hydrobiologica
Volume 12, Issue 5, Date: 1984, Pages: 463-478
A. K. Pandey Published Online:
Dec 2006 Copyright © 2006 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim
In this paper, a comprehensive survey is presented of the state of knowledge of the occurrence, chemical structure elucidation and biological importance of pheromones in fishes: fright and alarm substances, male and female sexual pheromones, intrasexual stimulants, school formation, social structure and individual recognition, pheromones and fish migration. Especially treated are the problems connected with the chemoreception under changed environmental conditions as well as the possibilities of utilizing pheromones or substances with a similar effect in fishery.
SEX DETERMINATION AND PRIMARY DIFFERENTIATION IN AMPHIBIANS
Sex determination and primary sex differentiation in amphibians: Genetic and developmental mechanisms The Journal of Experimental Zoology Volume 281, Issue 5, Date: 1 August 1998, Pages: 373-399 Tyrone B. Hayes Abstract | References | Full Text: PDF (517K)
SIMILAR QUAIL BRAIN AREA IS "PROBABLY HOMOLOGOUS" TO A PART OF THE MAMMALIAN BRAIN
Anatomical and neurochemical definition of the nucleus of the stria terminalis in japanese quail (Coturnix japonica)
N. Aste 1, J. Balthazart 2, P. Absil 2, R. Grossmann 3, E. Mülhbauer 3, C. Viglietti-Panzica 1, G.C. Panzica 1 *
1Department of Anatomy, Pharmacology, and Forensic Medicine, University of Torino, 10126 Torino, Italy
2Laboratory of Biochemistry, University of Liège, 4020 Liège, Belgium
3Institute for Small Animal Research, Federal Research Center of Agriculture, 29223 Celle, Germany
"....data support the notion that this area is similar and is probably homologous to the medial part of the nucleus of the stria terminalis of the mammalian brain."...
"Cytoarchitectonic, immunohistochemical, and in situ hybridization data support the notion that this area is similar and is probably homologous to the medial part of the nucleus of the stria terminalis of the mammalian brain. The present data provide a clear definition of this nucleus in quail: They show for the first time the presence of sexually dimorphic vasotocinergic neurons in this region of the quail brain and provide the first detailed description of this region in an avian species. J. Comp. Neurol. 396:141-157, 1998. © 1998 Wiley-Liss, Inc."
Estradiol, a key endocrine signal in the sexual differentiation and activation of reproductive behavior in quail
Journal of Experimental Zoology Part A: Ecological Genetics and Physiology
Jacques Balthazart, Charlotte A. Cornil, Thierry D. Charlier, Mélanie Taziaux, Gregory F. Ball
Abstract | References | Full Text: PDF (291 K)
SONGBIRD ANALOGUE OF THE MAMMALIAN AUDITORY CORTEX OF THE BRAIN
Calbindin-positive neurons reveal a sexual dimorphism within the songbird analogue of the mammalian auditory cortex Journal of Neurobiology Volume 66, Issue 2, Date: 5 February 2006, Pages: 182-195 Raphael Pinaud, Antonio F. Fortes, Peter Lovell, Claudio V. Mello Abstract | References | Full Text: PDF (341K)
GENE REGULATION IN SONG CIRCUIT DEVELOPMENT AND SONG LEARNING
Role of gene regulation in song circuit development and song learning Journal of Neurobiology Volume 33, Issue 5, Date: 5 November 1997, Pages: 549-571 David F. Clayton Abstract | References | Full Text: PDF (225K)
THE NEUROENDOCRINE AND SOCIAL REASONS WHY BIRDS SING: WHY AND WHAT ARE THEY SINGING ABOUT?
"...song rate was measured in dyads composed of one male and one female (M-F) or two males (M-M)."
Social context affects testosterone-induced singing and the volume of song control nuclei in male canaries (Serinus canaria)
Journal of Neurobiology
Volume 66, Issue 10, Date: 5 September 2006, Pages: 1044-1060
Géraldine Boseret, Claudio Carere, Gregory F. Ball, Jacques Balthazart
Abstract | References | Full Text: PDF (377K)
..."In many songbird species, testosterone (T) enhances singing behavior but elevated plasma T concentrations are not absolutely required for singing to occur. Singing is generally produced either to defend a territory or to attract a mate and it is therefore not surprising that singing rate can be influenced by the sex and behavior of the social partner. We investigated, based on two independent experiments, the effect of the presence of a male or female partner on the rate of song produced by male canaries. In the first experiment, song rate was measured in dyads composed of one male and one female (M-F) or two males (M-M)."...
"A second experiment, carried out with castrated males that were all treated with T and exposed either to another T-treated castrate or to an estradiol-implanted female, confirmed that song rate was higher in the M-M than in the M-F condition and that HVC volume was larger in heterosexual than in same-sex dyads. The effects of T on singing rate and on the volume of the song control nuclei are thus modulated by the social environment, including the presence/absence of a potential mate and dominance status among males. 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Neurobiol, 2006"
AGGRESSION MAY BE MODULATED BY THE SAME HORMONES IN BOTH FEMALES AND MALES OF A BEHAVIORALLY SEX-REVERSED BIRD SPECIES
" Hence, aggression in females and males may indeed be modulated by the same hormones, but regulated at different levels of the neuroendocrine cascade."
Volume 67 Issue 12, Pages 1560 - 1573
Published Online: 31 May 2007 Copyright © 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., A Wiley Company
Sex-role reversal is reflected in the brain of African black coucals (Centropus grillii)
Cornelia Voigt 1, Wolfgang Goymann 1 2 *
1Department of Behavioural Neurobiology, Max Planck Institute for Ornithology, D-82319 Seewiesen, Germany
2Department of Biological Rhythms and Behaviour, Max Planck Institute for Ornithology, D-82346 Andechs, Germany
"In most bird species males compete over access to females and have elevated circulating androgen levels when they establish and defend a breeding territory or guard a mate. Testosterone is involved in the regulation of territorial aggression and sexual display in males. In few bird species the traditional sex-roles are reversed and females are highly aggressive and compete over access to males. Such species represent excellent models to study the hormonal modulation of aggressive behavior in females. Plasma sex steroid concentrations in sex-role reversed species follow the patterns of birds with traditional sex-roles. The neural mechanisms modulating endocrine secretion and hormone-behavior interactions in sex-role reversed birds are currently unknown."
In the nucleus taeniae, however, we show for the first time, that females have a higher mRNA expression of androgen receptors than males. These results suggest that the expression of agonistic and courtship behavior in females does not depend on elevated blood hormone levels, but may be regulated via increased steroid hormone sensitivity in particular target areas in the brain. Hence, aggression in females and males may indeed be modulated by the same hormones, but regulated at different levels of the neuroendocrine cascade. © 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Develop Neurobiol, 2007"
(SEX PHEROMONE RESPONSES IN MAMMALS) SEX-LINKED PHEROMONE RESPONSES IN MICE
Vomeronasal neuroepithelium and forebrain Fos responses to male pheromones in male and female mice Journal of Neurobiology Volume 39, Issue 2, Date: May 1999, Pages: 249-263 H. A. Halem, J. A. Cherry, M. J. Baum Abstract | References | Full Text: PDF (430K)
CONTEXT FIELD: HUMAN-CHIMPANZEE GENOME COMPARISONS
Understanding the recent evolution of the human genome: insights from human-chimpanzee genome comparisons Human Mutation Volume 28, Issue 2, Date: February 2007, Pages: 99-130 Hildegard Kehrer-Sawatzki, David N. Cooper Abstract | References | Full Text: PDF (453K)
CONTEXT FIELD: NEUROPSYCHIATRIC GENETICS
Abstracts for the IXth World Congress of Psychiatric Genetics, Saint Louis, Missouri Neuropsychiatric Genetics Volume 105, Issue 7, Date: 8 October 2001, Pages: 579-595 Abstract | Full Text: PDF (175K)
CONTEXT FIELD: SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY STUDIES [BELOW]
" ...budding efforts on neural mechanisms of..."
Volume 30 Issue 3, Pages 299 - 322, Published Online: 22 May 2000, Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Abstract | References | Full Text: PDF (Size: 138K) | Related Articles | Citation Tracking
Stereotyping, prejudice, and discrimination at the seam between the centuries: evolution, culture, mind, and brain
Susan T. Fiske *
Princeton University, USA
*Correspondence to Susan T. Fiske, Correspondence to: Susan Fiske, Department of Psychology, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ, 08544-1010, USA.
Social psychologists possess considerable enthusiasm and expertise in the study of stereotyping, prejudice, and discrimination, having commenced in the 1920s and 1930s. Research and theory in the next three to four decades focused on motivation, followed by a reactively exclusive focus on cognition in the 1970s and early 1980s, in turn followed by a 1990s joint focus on cognition and motivation. Throughout, intra-individual conflict analyses have alternated with contextual analyses, though both clearly have merit. Based on a social evolutionary viewpoint, a few core social motives (belonging, understanding, controlling, enhancing, and trusting) account for much current research on interpersonal category-based responses. Trends for the future should entail more emphasis on behavior, more sensitivity to cultural specificities and universals, as well as budding efforts on neural mechanisms of stereotyping, prejudice, and discrimination. Copyright © 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)
10.1002/(SICI)1099-0992(200005/06)30:3<299::aid-ejsp2>3.0.CO;2-F About DOI
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