Social norms grow out of social value and both serve to differentiate human social behavior from that of other species. The significance of learning in behavior varies from species to species and is closely linked to processes of communication. Only human beings are capable of elaborate symbolic communication and of structuring their behavior in terms of abstract preferences that we have called values. Norms are the means through which values are expressed in behavior.
Norms generally are the rules and regulations that groups live by. Or perhaps because the words, rules and regulations, call to mind some kind of formal listing, we might refer to norms as the standards of behavior of a group. For while some of the appropriate standards of behavior in most societies are written down, many of them are not that formal. Many are learned, informally, in interaction with other people and are passed "that way from generation to generation...
Social norms (sociology)
Social norms are the behaviors and cues within a society or group. This sociological term has been defined as "the rules that a group uses for appropriate and inappropriate values, beliefs, attitudes and behaviors. These rules may be explicit or implicit. Failure to follow the rules can result in severe punishments, including exclusion from the group." They have also been described as the "customary rules of behavior that coordinate our interactions with others."
The social norms indicate the established and approved ways of doing things, of dress, of speech and of appearance. These vary and evolve not only through time but also vary from one age group to another and between social classes and social groups. What is deemed to be acceptable dress, speech or behavior in one social group may not be accepted in another.
Deference to the social norms maintains one's acceptance and popularity within a particular group; ignoring the social norms risks one becoming unacceptable, unpopular or even an outcast from a group. Social norms tend to be tacitly established and maintained through body language and non-verbal communication between people in their normal social discourse...
By GILLIAN FOURNIER
The implicit (not spoken of…you learn about them through violation of the “rule”) or explicit (openly talked about) rules of a group concerning the appropriateness or inappropriateness of certain values, beliefs, attitudes, and behaviors.
It should be noted that these “rules” are not legal laws, instead they are more like social obligations. Most people follow the norms because the “group” may choose to punish the transgressor. Punishments could include: guilt/shame, talking behind their back/gossiping about the person, physical harm or even being made to leave the group permenantly.
Example: Although handshakes between men and women are common in most Western countries, in certain parts of the world such a gesture would be considered inappropriate contact between the sexes.
277. "Social Norms: Internalization, Persuasion, and History
" Law & Society Review, Vol 34, No. 1 (2000), 157-178.
Institute for Communitarian Policy Studies
George Washington University
Frequently Asked Questions about the Social Norms Approach
* What are social norms?
The National Social Norms Institute
University of Virginia
The Power of Norms and Groups on Individuals:
Philip G. Zimbardo Ph.D., Stanford University
Whenever I enter an office-building elevator, I automatically turn and face front, do not make eye contact with other passengers, stop talking or speak only in hush tones to a companion. Are these my personal preferences or idiosyncrasies? Hardly, since most people in most elevators behave similarly. Those actions tell you little about me but a lot about the unspoken rules of public elevators. Why do we do it? Unlike signs forbidding us to smoke or advising us what to do in case of a fire, nothing in any elevator says we should act in these strange ways. Our behavior is under the control of unwritten social rules, implicit norms, which govern appropriate elevator demeanor.
We can test if such situational rules are in silent force by violating them and seeing what our own and others' reactions will be. The reactions will be either of distress or laughter at the apparent violation of these unwritten expectations. One of the most popular scenarios in the long history of Alan Funt's ingenious Candid Camera programs is "Face The Rear." An elevator is rigged so that after an unsuspecting person enters, four Candid Camera staff enter, and one by one they all face the rear. The doors close and then reopen; now revealing that the passenger had conformed and is now also facing the rear. Doors close and reopen, and everyone is facing sideways, and then face the other way. We laugh that these people are manipulated like puppets on invisible strings, but this scenario makes us aware of the number of situations in which we mindlessly follow the dictates of group norms and situational forces.
Social norms are expectations shared by the members of a group about appropriate ways to behave in given situations. Norms are the potential "pressure" in situations that: help to define the nature of social reality; form the foundation upon which people base their interaction; and provide a common referent for members' self-evaluation. By means of these mechanisms, norms increase feelings of personal and group identity...
Power of Social Norms - Social Psychology
Philip G. Zimbardo Ph.D., Stanford University
“The Lucifer Effect: Understanding How Good People Turn Evil”
The Lucifer Effect raises a fundamental question about the nature of human nature: How is it possible for ordinary, average, even good people to become perpetrators of evil? In trying to understand unusual, or aberrant behavior, we often err in focusing exclusively on the inner determinants of genes, personality, and character, as we also tend to ignore what may be the critical catalyst for behavior change in the external Situation or in the System that creates and maintains such situations. I challenge readers to reflect on how well they really know themselves, and how much confidence they have in what they would or would not ever do when put into new behavioral settings...
The Lucifer Effect - by Philip Zimbardo
At the core of evil is the process of dehumanization by which certain other people or collectives of them, are depicted as less than human, as non comparable in humanity or personal dignity to those who do the labeling. Prejudice employs negative stereotypes in images or verbally abusive terms to demean and degrade the objects of its narrow view of superiority over these allegedly inferior persons. Discrimination involves the actions taken against those others based on the beliefs and emotions generated by prejudiced perspectives…
Nazi Comic Books
Hitler’s “final solution” of genocide of all European Jews began by shaping the beliefs of school children through the reading of assigned texts in which Jews are portrayed in a series of increasingly negative scenarios. At the end of these lessons in civics or geography, we see the “reasonable” discriminatory actions that Germans should take toward Jews.
This educational propaganda was intentionally designed to create a dehumanized conception of Jews among students by means of providing them with required texts that were colorful and visually told provocative narratives. Students from primary school through High School read these books…
Read complete overview & more:
The Lucifer Effect - by Philip Zimbardo
- Milgram’s studies of obedience provide evidence of a strong pressure for compliance with the requests of authority figures
- Strength of tendency to obey comes from systematic socialization of society members that obedience constitutes correct conduct
- Frequently adaptive to obey dictates of genuine authorities because such individuals usually possess high levels of knowledge, wisdom, and power
- Deference to authorities can occur in a mindless fashion as a decision-making shortcut
- Tendency to respond to "symbols and signs of authority" rather than to its substance
- Failure to distinguish between Just and Unjust Authority
Readers - Favorite Book Passages:
Administrative evil is systemic, in the sense that it exists beyond any one person once its policies are in place and its procedures take control. Nevertheless, I would argue, organizations must have leaders, and those leaders must be held accountable for creating or maintaining such evil. I believe that a system consists of those agents and agencies whose power and values create or modify the rules of and expectations for 'approved behaviors' within its sphere of influence. In one sense, the system is more than the sum of its parts and of its leaders, who also fall under its powerful influences. In another sense, however, the individuals who play key roles in creating a system that engages in illegal, immoral, and unethical conduct should be held accountable despite the situational pressures on them." (From Chapter 15, page 438)
— Daniel Effron, Rochester, New York
Reference link List on Evil:
Collected by Phil Zimbardo and Kieran O’Connor
A New Class of Segregation?
Calling on the Boy Scouts of America to embody the heroic imagination
Published on May 22, 2013
Gay Catholic Priest - Appealing his case – Fr. Marty Kurylowicz – to Pope Francis | Part 1 of 4
Gay Catholic Priest - Appealing his case – Fr. Marty Kurylowicz – to Pope Francis | Part 2 of 4
Gay Children Pentecost - Fr. Marty Kurylowicz Appeals his Case “Protecting Gay Children 1997” to - Pope Francis - 2013 - 5/23/13
(Reposted) --- Gay Catholic Priest – Fr. Marty Kurylowicz - Charged by the Vatican for “Coming Out” March 1997 - For the Protection of Children – 15 years later – February 10, 2013
(Added Links) --- Gay Catholic Priest – Fr. Marty Kurylowicz - Charged by the Vatican for “Coming Out” March 1997 - For the Protection of Children – 15 years later & President Obama’s letter of appreciation - 2012 – 5/1/13
(Original posting) --- Gay Catholic Priest Charged by the Vatican for “Coming Out” March 1997 - For the Protection of Children – 15 years later | Separation of Church and State - Does Not Protect Children - February 10, 2013 - 2/26/13
My Perspective on LGBT Rights Begins with Children
Fr. Marty Kurylowicz - 5/10/13
Children Growing-up Gay & Vatican's Impact Harmful - GROUPTHINK
Fr. Marty Kurylowicz - 2008
Krista Tippett - Speaking of Faith
American Public Media/Minnesota Public Radio
"Reparative Therapy" or "Conversion Therapy" – To Change Sexual Orientation - Lack Medical Justification, THREATEN HEALTH - Are ETHICALLY UNACCEPTABLE - 9/1/12
STRUCTURAL VIOLENCE and CHILDREN --- “Don’t Make Waves” --- Benedict XVI and Curia’s Child Sexual Abuse Cover-ups and Gay Obsession – 5/13/13
Gay Marriage – UK PM DAVID CAMERON - Lack of Love & Support of Children is ‘DAMAGE TO FAMILY’ i.e. BENEDICT XVI --- 30 years of GLOBAL CHILD SEXUAL ABUSE COVER-UPS | Gay Marriages Hurts No One!!! - 1/2/13
GAY MARRIAGE - 8 Part Series - providing Reliable Authoritative Data & Research – Challenges the Accuracy & Truthfulness of Benedict XVI & Hierarchy – Public Antigay Attacks & Tactics - 2012
Do I reject my gay brother? Bishop Gumbleton - Homophobia - "Always Our Children" PBS 1999
SEXUAL ORIENTATION is less about sex and more about LOVE, being one with another human being. Attachment Theory - - LOVE & RELIGION ---
Nothing in life is more precious than the intimate relationships we have with love ones. Healthy love relationships delight us give us confidence to take on challenges and support us in difficult times.
3 PSYCHOLOGICAL FACTS ABOUT GROWING UP GAY
AUSCHWITZ -- CHRISTMAS 2008 -- A flashback far more severe than in --- BROKEBACK MOUNTAIN
December 26, 2008 – Fr. Marty Kurylowicz
Conflict in the Catholic Hierarchy:
A Study of Coping Strategies in the Hunthausen Affair,
with Preferential Attention to Discursive Strategies
by Timothy Peter Schilling 2003
New York Gov. Cuomo & NYC Mayor Bloomberg Passing NY Gay Marriage Bill 2011
Protect Religious Freedom – but not Tyranny in Religion - June 20, 2011
The way to begin for us all, not only the NY State Senators, to protect Religious Freedom and not Tyranny in Religion is by obtaining a well-informed conscience. We start by individually approaching and studying in (great detail because it involves the lives of children) from the best and the brightest (1) scripture scholars regarding the references related to homosexuality and (2) scientists in the field of study of human sexuality, in particular, but [not] limited to, the onset of sexual orientation. The prerequisite to the formation of a well-informed conscience is making a thorough study of all sides of the issue from all available authoritative data and research, including opposing views. Then in this way we are better equipped to decide who and what needs government protection in regards to the gay marriage bill. This exhaustive procedure follows to the letter the Gospel quotation about the “plank” and the” speck.”
“How can you say to your brother, ‘Brother, let me take the speck out of your eye,’ when you yourself fail to see the plank in your own eye? You hypocrite, first take the plank out of your eye, and then you will see clearly to remove the speck from your brother’s eye”. Luke 6:42
The “plank” for us is ignorance. If we satisfactorily resolve this ignorance, then together we will be able to see more clearly, whether or not, as NY State Senators (government officials) and as citizens we are colluding with the Catholic Hierarchy and are harming children, as was found to be the case in the Ireland Murphy Report.
…This piece of legislation the gay marriage bill is not like any other in that it involves the well-being of children, at its very root…
How I resolved this situation was through hours upon hours of continuous prayer. Afterwards, I came to the realization that my life had already been altered – changed forever. Because there was no way I could pretend I did not know what I knew, how severely children are harmed for life by the Vatican unsubstantiated antigay teachings and antigay social norms. I decided that I could not live with the regret knowing that I had a chance to make a profound difference for the better for others, most especially children and that I did nothing. My life would be nothing. I took the bungee jump and I came out to my parishioners. It definitely was not easy, but one thing that happened to me is - I gained a real sense of peace and well-being that has remained constant and unshaken. The scripture passages that kept repeating over and over in my head were:
“For whoever wants to save their life will lose it, but whoever loses their life for me will find it.” Matthew 16:25
“What good is it for someone to gain the whole world, and yet lose or forfeit their very self?” Luke 9:25
“Anyone who loves their father or mother more than me is not worthy of me;… Whoever does not take up their cross and follow me is not worthy of me.” Matthew 10:36-38
“…whoever causes one of these little ones who believe in Me to stumble, it would be better for him to have a heavy millstone hung around his neck, and to be drowned in the depth of the sea.” Matthew 18:6
Even after Benedict XVI and his accomplices’ mistreatment and the serious harm they have caused me that sense of peace has never left me. It is remains rock solid. I believe that is the benefit of spending the time and energy of acquiring a well-informed conscience regarding sexual orientation.
Written by Fr. Marty Kurylowicz
Pope Francis Apologizes to LGBT Youth at World Youth Day Event:' My Prayer for the Church - July 25, 2013